OpenACC Tutorial - Profiling

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Learning objectives
  • Understand what a profiler is
  • Understand how to use PGPROF profiler
  • Understand how the code is performing
  • Understand where to focus your time and rewrite most time consuming routines



Code profiling

Why would one need to profile code? Because it's the only way to understand:

  • Where time is being spent (Hotspots)
  • How the code is performing
  • Where to focus your time

What is so important about hotspots in the code ? Amdahl's law says that "Parallelizing the most time-consuming routines (i.e. the hotspots) will have the most impact".

Build the Sample Code

For this example we will use code from the repositories. Download the package and change to the cpp or f90 directory. The object of this exercise is to compile and link the code, obtain an executable, and then profile it.


Which compiler ?

As of May 2016, compiler support for OpenACC is still relatively scarce. Being pushed by NVidia, through its Portland Group division, as well as by Cray, these two lines of compilers offer the most advanced OpenACC support. GNU Compiler support for OpenACC exists, but is considered experimental in version 5. It is expected to be officially supported in version 6 of the compiler.

For the purpose of this tutorial, we use version 16.3 of the Portland Group compilers. We note that Portland Group compilers are free for academic usage.



Question.png
[name@server ~]$ make 
nvc++    -c -o main.o main.cpp
nvc++ main.o -o cg.x

After the executable is created, we are going to profile that code.


Which profiler ?

For the purpose of this tutorial, we use several profilers as described below:

  • PGPROF - a powerful and simple analyzer for parallel programs written with OpenMP or OpenACC directives, or with CUDA.

We note that Portland Group Profiler is free for academic usage.

  • NVIDIA Visual Profiler NVVP - a cross-platform analyzing tool for the codes written with OpenACC and CUDA C/C++ instructions.
  • NVPROF - a command line text-based version of the NVIDIA Visual Profiler.



PGPROF Profiler

Starting a new PGPROF session

These next pictures demonstrate how to start with the PGPROF profiler. The first step is to initiate a new session. Then, browse for an executable file of the code you want to profile. Finally, specify the profiling options; for example, if you need to profile CPU activity then click the "Profile execution of the CPU" box.

NVIDIA Visual Profiler

Another profiler available for OpenACC applications is the NVIDIA Visual Profiler. It's a crossplatform analyzing tool for code written with OpenACC and CUDA C/C++ instructions.

NVVP profiler
Browse for the executable you want to profile

NVIDIA NVPROF Command Line Profiler

NVIDIA also provides a command line version called NVPROF, similar to GPU prof

Question.png
[name@server ~]$ nvprof --cpu-profiling on ./cg.x 
<Program output >
======== CPU profiling result (bottom up):
84.25% matvec(matrix const &, vector const &, vector const &)
84.25% main
9.50% waxpby(double, vector const &, double, vector const &, vector const &)
3.37% dot(vector const &, vector const &)
2.76% allocate_3d_poisson_matrix(matrix&, int)
2.76% main
0.11% __c_mset8
0.03% munmap
  0.03% free_matrix(matrix&)
    0.03% main
======== Data collected at 100Hz frequency

Compiler Feedback

Before working on the routine, we need to understand what the compiler is actually doing by asking ourselves the following questions:

  • What optimizations were applied?
  • What prevented further optimizations?
  • Can very minor modifications of the code affect performance?

The PGI compiler offers you a -Minfo flag with the following options:

  • accel – Print compiler operations related to the accelerator
  • all – Print all compiler output
  • intensity – Print loop intensity information
  • ccff–Add information to the object files for use by tools

How to Enable Compiler Feedback

  • Edit the Makefile
 CXX=nvc++
 CXXFLAGS=-fast -Minfo=all,intensity,ccff
 LDFLAGS=${CXXFLAGS}
  • Rebuild
Question.png
[name@server ~]$ make clean; make
nvc++ -fast -Minfo=all,intensity,ccff   -c -o main.o main.cpp
initialize_vector(vector &, double):
     20, include "vector.h"
          36, Intensity = 0.0
              Memory set idiom, loop replaced by call to __c_mset8
dot(const vector &, const vector &):
     21, include "vector_functions.h"
          27, Intensity = 1.00
              Generated vector simd code for the loop containing reductions
              FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &):
     21, include "vector_functions.h"
          39, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
              Generated vector simd code for the loop
              Loop unrolled 2 times
              FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
allocate_3d_poisson_matrix(matrix &, int):
     22, include "matrix.h"
          43, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
          44, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not vectorized/parallelized: loop count too small
          45, Intensity = 0.0
          57, Intensity = 0.0
          59, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
matvec(const matrix &, const vector &, const vector &):
     23, include "matrix_functions.h"
          29, Intensity = (num_rows*((row_end-row_start)*         2))/(num_rows+(num_rows+(num_rows+((row_end-row_start)+(row_end-row_start)))))
              FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
          33, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not vectorized: non-stride-1 array reference
              Loop not vectorized: mixed data types
              Loop unrolled 2 times
              FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
main:
     38, allocate_3d_poisson_matrix(matrix &, int) inlined, size=41 (inline) file main.cpp (29)
          43, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
          44, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not vectorized/parallelized: loop count too small
          45, Intensity = 0.0
          57, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not fused: function call before adjacent loop
          59, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
     42, allocate_vector(vector &, unsigned int) inlined, size=3 (inline) file main.cpp (24)
     43, allocate_vector(vector &, unsigned int) inlined, size=3 (inline) file main.cpp (24)
     44, allocate_vector(vector &, unsigned int) inlined, size=3 (inline) file main.cpp (24)
     45, allocate_vector(vector &, unsigned int) inlined, size=3 (inline) file main.cpp (24)
     46, allocate_vector(vector &, unsigned int) inlined, size=3 (inline) file main.cpp (24)
     48, initialize_vector(vector &, double) inlined, size=5 (inline) file main.cpp (34)
          36, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not vectorized/parallelized: not countable
     49, initialize_vector(vector &, double) inlined, size=5 (inline) file main.cpp (34)
          36, Intensity = 0.0
              Loop not vectorized/parallelized: not countable
     52, waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=10 (inline) file main.cpp (33)
          39, Intensity = 0.0
              Memory copy idiom, loop replaced by call to __c_mcopy8
     53, matvec(const matrix &, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=19 (inline) file main.cpp (20)
          29, Intensity = [symbolic], and not printable, try the -Mpfi -Mpfo options
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
          33, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not vectorized: non-stride-1 array reference
              Loop not vectorized: mixed data types
              Loop unrolled 2 times
     54, waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=10 (inline) file main.cpp (33)
          27, FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
          29, FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
          33, FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
          39, Intensity = 0.67
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
              Generated vector simd code for the loop
              Loop unrolled 4 times
              FMA (fused multiply-add) instruction(s) generated
     56, dot(const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=9 (inline) file main.cpp (21)
          27, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not fused: function call before adjacent loop
              Generated vector simd code for the loop containing reductions
     61, Intensity = 0.0
     62, waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=10 (inline) file main.cpp (33)
          39, Intensity = 0.0
              Memory copy idiom, loop replaced by call to __c_mcopy8
     65, dot(const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=9 (inline) file main.cpp (21)
          27, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
              Generated vector simd code for the loop containing reductions
     67, waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=10 (inline) file main.cpp (33)
          39, Intensity = 0.67
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
              Generated vector simd code for the loop
              Loop unrolled 4 times
     72, matvec(const matrix &, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=19 (inline) file main.cpp (20)
          29, Intensity = [symbolic], and not printable, try the -Mpfi -Mpfo options
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
          33, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not vectorized: non-stride-1 array reference
              Loop not vectorized: mixed data types
              Loop unrolled 2 times
     73, dot(const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=9 (inline) file main.cpp (21)
          27, Intensity = 1.00
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
              Generated vector simd code for the loop containing reductions
     77, waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=10 (inline) file main.cpp (33)
          39, Intensity = 0.67
              Loop not fused: different loop trip count
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
              Generated vector simd code for the loop
              Loop unrolled 4 times
     78, waxpby(double, const vector &, double, const vector &, const vector &) inlined, size=10 (inline) file main.cpp (33)
          39, Intensity = 0.67
              Loop not fused: function call before adjacent loop
              Loop not vectorized: data dependency
              Generated vector simd code for the loop
              Loop unrolled 4 times
     88, free_vector(vector &) inlined, size=2 (inline) file main.cpp (29)
     89, free_vector(vector &) inlined, size=2 (inline) file main.cpp (29)
     90, free_vector(vector &) inlined, size=2 (inline) file main.cpp (29)
     91, free_vector(vector &) inlined, size=2 (inline) file main.cpp (29)
     92, free_matrix(matrix &) inlined, size=5 (inline) file main.cpp (73)
nvc++ main.o -o cg.x -fast -Minfo=all,intensity,ccff

Computational Intensity

Computational Intensity of a loop is a measure of how much work is being done compared to memory operations.

Computation Intensity = Compute Operations / Memory Operations

Computational Intensity of 1.0 or greater suggests that the loop might run well on a GPU.

Understanding the code

Let's look closely at the following code from matrix_functions.h:

for(int i=0;i<num_rows;i++) {
  double sum=0;
  int row_start=row_offsets[i];
  int row_end=row_offsets[i+1];
  for(int j=row_start; j<row_end;j++) {
    unsigned int Acol=cols[j];
    double Acoef=Acoefs[j]; 
    double xcoef=xcoefs[Acol]; 
    sum+=Acoef*xcoef;
  }
  ycoefs[i]=sum;
}

Given the code above, we search for data dependencies:

  • Does one loop iteration affect other loop iterations?
  • Do loop iterations read from and write to different places in the same array?
  • Is sum a data dependency? No, it’s a reduction.

Onward to the next unit: Adding directives
Back to the lesson plan